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The rice Os03g0319400 was reported as OsCK1[1] in 2003, OsCIPK3(OsCIPK03)[2] in 2007, and OsCIPK31[3]in 2010, respectively.

Annotated Information


  • OsCK1 is involved in responses to diverse signals. Deletion of the C-terminal region from OsCK1 significantly decreased autophosphorylation activity without affecting the ability for substrate phosphorylation, which suggesting that the CBL/CIPK or SCaBP/PKS signaling pathways recently found in Arabidopsis may also exist in rice and function in cold response in which calcium signal serves as a second messenger[1].
  • Under cold and drought stresses, OsCIPK03- and OsCIPK12-overexpressing transgenic plants accumulated significantly higher contents of proline and soluble sugars than the wild type[2].
  • Rice plants use OsCIPK31 to modulate responses to abiotic stresses during the seed germination and seedling stages and to modulate the expression of stress-responsive genes[3].

GO assignment(s): GO:0004672,GO:0004674, GO:0006468, GO:0005524, GO:0007165


  • oscipk31::Ds mutants[3]:
    • To determine the physiological roles of OsCIPK31 in rice plants, the sensitivity of oscipk31::Ds, which is a transposon Ds insertion mutant, to abiotic stresses was examined during germination and seedling stages. oscipk31::Ds mutants exhibited hypersensitive phenotypes to ABA, salt, mannitol, and glucose. Compared with wild-type rice plants, mutants exhibited retarded germination and slow seedling growth[3].
    • oscipk31::Ds seedlings exhibited enhanced expression of several stress-responsive genes after exposure to these abiotic stresses. However, the expression of ABA metabolic genes and the endogenous levels of ABA were not altered significantly in the oscipk31::Ds mutant[3].
  • Transgenic seeds of four OsCIPK03-overexpressed T1 families[2]:
    • T10
    • T24
    • T29
    • T30
    • They were germinated on hygromycincontaining Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and at least 20 positive (hygromycin-resistant) seedlings for each family were selected for cold tolerance at the five-leaf stage[2].


  • Expression of the OsCK1 gene was detected mainly in the shoots and highly inducible by diverse signals such as cold, light, salt, sugar and cytokinins. In addition, calcium increased the OsCK1 transcript level, whereas a calcium ionophore, A23187, partially abolished stimulus-induced expressions. OsCK1 phosphorylated itself and a generic substrate, myelin basic protein, in the preference of Mn2+[1].
  • OsCIPK03 was induced strongly by cold stress, slightly by ABA and PEG treatments, but not by drought and salt stresses. Overexpression of OsCIPK03 in rice results in enhanced cold tolerance[2].
  • After cold stress for 3 d, OsCIPK03-overexpressing plants accumulated approximately 8-fold higher content of Pro and 5-fold higher content of soluble sugars than the plants did before cold stress. The cold stress-induced increases of Pro and soluble sugar contents in the transgenic plants were significantly higher than those in wild-type plants, in which only about 2- to 3-fold increases of Pro and the soluble sugars after cold stress were detected[2].
  • Exposure to high concentrations of NaCl or mannitol effected a rapid and transient enhancement of OsCIPK31 expression. These findings were observed only in the light. However, longer exposure to most stresses resulted in downregulation of OsCIPK31 expression in both the presence and absence of light[3].


  • Sequence analysis indicated that the open reading frame of the OsCK1 gene consists of 1350 bp encoding 449 amino acid residues, which is very similar to a family of calcineurin B-like protein (CBL)-interacting

protein kinases (CIPKs) or salt overly sensitive 2 (SOS2)-like protein kinases (PKS) in Arabidopsis. CIPKs/PKS are a group of Ser/Thr protein kinases associated with the AtCBL/SOS3-like calcium-binding proteins (SCaBP). OsCK1 actually interacts with AtCBL3 through the C-terminal region in a yeast two-hybrid system, suggesting that OsCK1 is probably a rice orthologue of one of the CIPK/PKS members[1].

  • Thus, OsCK1 is a structural homologue of Arabidopsis CIPKs/PKS[1].
  • OsCIPK03 belongs to Group Iof OsCIPK family[4].

Knowledge Extension

  • Calcineurin B-like protein-interacting protein kinases(CIPKs) are a group of typical Ser/Thr protein kinases that

mediate calcium signals. Some genes in the CIPK family of rice are involved in the responses to multiple abiotic stresses, whereas some genes of the family are responsive to specific stresses[2].

  • The calcineurin B-like protein–CBL-interacting protein kinase (CBL–CIPK) signaling pathway in plants is a Ca2+-related pathway that responds strongly to both abiotic and biotic environmental stimuli. The CBL-CIPK system shows variety, specificity, and complexity in response to different stresses, and the CBL–CIPK signaling pathway is regulated by complex mechanisms in plant cells[5].
  • Putative proline synthetase and transporter genes had significantly higher expression level in the transgenic plants than in the wild type. The differentially induced expression of OsCIPK genes by different stresses and the examples of improved stress tolerance of the OsCIPK transgenic rice suggest that rice CIPK genes have diverse roles in different stress responses and some of them may possess potential usefulness in stress-tolerance improvement of rice[2].
  • As a plant-specific Ca2+ sensor relaying pathway, the CBL–CIPK pathway has some crosstalk with other signaling pathways. In addition, research has shown that there is crosstalk between the CBL–CIPK pathway and the low-K+ response pathway, the ABA signaling pathway, the nitrate sensing and signaling pathway, and others[5].

Labs working on this gene

  • National Center of Plant Gene Research (Wuhan), National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
  • Department of Molecular Physiology, National Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, Suweon 441-707, Korea
  • Department of Molecular Biology, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747, Korea
  • Department of Bioinformatics, National Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, Suweon 441-707, Korea
  • Division of Applied Life Science (Brain Korea 21 Program), Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Research Center, Environmental Biotechnology National Core Research Center, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Korea
  • Division of Plant Biosciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea,
  • National Academy of Agriculture Science, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-857, Korea
  • National Institute of Crop Science, Rural Development Administration, Milyang 627-803, Korea


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Kim K N, Lee J S, Han H, et al. Isolation and characterization of a novel rice Ca2+-regulated protein kinase gene involved in responses to diverse signals including cold, light, cytokinins, sugars and salts[J]. Plant molecular biology, 2003, 52(6): 1191-1202.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Xiang Y, Huang Y, Xiong L. Characterization of stress-responsive CIPK genes in rice for stress tolerance improvement[J]. Plant physiology, 2007, 144(3): 1416-1428.文献18.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Piao H, Xuan Y, Park S H, et al. OsCIPK31, a CBL-interacting protein kinase is involved in germination and seedling growth under abiotic stress conditions in rice plants[J]. Molecules and cells, 2010, 30(1): 19-27.
  4. Giong H K, Moon S, Jung K H. A systematic view of the rice calcineurin B-like protein interacting protein kinase family[J]. Genes & Genomics, 2015, 37(1): 55-68.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Yu Q, An L, Li W. The CBL–CIPK network mediates different signaling pathways in plants[J]. Plant cell reports, 2014, 33(2): 203-214.

Structured Information