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The rice Os03g0135700 was reported as RAI1 in 2012 by researchers from Japan.

Annotated Information


Gene Symbol

  • Os03g0135700 <=> OsbHLH003, RAI1


  • The Rac/Rop GTPase OsRac1 plays an essential role in rice immunity.
  • RAI1 encodes a putative basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor.
  • RAI1 is involved in defense responses in rice. RAI1 interacted with OsMAPK3 and OsMAPK6 proteins in vivo and in vitro.
  • RAI1 was phosphorylated by OsMAPK3/6 and OsMKK4-dd in vitro.
  • RAI1 is the first transcription factor acting downstream of OsRac1.[1][2][3]

Phenotypic analysis

  • Overexpression of OsMAPK6 and/or OsMAPK3 together with OsMKK4-dd increased PAL1 and OsWRKY19 expression in rice protoplasts.
  • Therefore, the regulation of PAL1 and OsWRKY19 expression by RAI1 could be controlled via an OsMKK4–OsMAPK3/6 cascade.


  • RAI1 is up-regulated by the sphingolipid and chitin elicitors, resulting in the expression of elicitor-responsive genes.

Subcellular localization

  • RAI1 protein was localized in protoplasts.


  • The RAI1 protein has a bHLH domain that is conserved in homologous rice proteins.
  • The basic domain at the N-terminus of bHLH is known to be important for binding to DNA elements such as the cis-elements in the promoters of target genes.
  • The HLH domain includes two amphipathic a-helices with a linking loop.
  • These a-helices may function in the formation of homodimers or heterodimers with other bHLH proteins .

Labs working on this gene

  • Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, 630-0192 Japan
  • Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Yayoi, Bunkyo, Tokyo, 113-0032 Japan
  • Agricultural and Veterinary Laboratories, Meiji Seika Kaisha, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, 222-8567 Japan
  • Division of Plant Sciences, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8602 Japan


  1. Kim SH, Oikawa T, Kyozuka J, Wong HL, Umemura K, Kishi-Kaboshi M, Takahashi A, Kawano Y, Kawasaki T, Shimamoto K. The bHLH Rac Immunity1 (RAI1) Is Activated by OsRac1 via OsMAPK3 and OsMAPK6 in Rice Immunity. Plant Cell Physiol. 2012 Apr;53(4):740-54. doi: 10.1093/pcp/pcs033. Epub 2012 Mar 21. PubMed PMID: 22437844.
  2. Atchley, W.R., Terhalle, W. and Dress, A. (1999) Positional dependence,cliques, and predictive motifs in the bHLH protein domain. J. Mol. Evol. 48: 501–516.
  3. Berken, A. (2006) ROPs in the spotlight of plant signal transduction.Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 63: 2446–2459

Structured Information