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Annotated Information


RAI1 gene is up-regulated in suspension cells expressing a constitutively active form of OsRac1. RAI1 encodes a putative basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor. RAI1 is involved in defense responses in rice.RAI1 interacted with OsMAPK3 and OsMAPK6 proteins in vivo and in vitro. RAI1 was phosphorylated by OsMAPK3/6 and OsMKK4-dd in vitro. RAI1 could be regulated by OsRac1 through an OsMAPK3/6 cascade. RAI1 as the first transcription factor acting downstream of OsRac1.


RAI1 localized in cytoplasm and nucleus. OsMAPK6 and OsMAPK3 together with OsMKK4-dd can regulate the downstream genes of RAI1 and phosphorylate RAI1 proteins. Therefore,regulation of downstream genes by RAI1 could be accomplished by changes in both its transcription level and post-translationally through an OsMKK4–OsMAPK3/6 cascade.


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Labs working on this gene

Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, 630-0192 Japan

Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Yayoi, Bunkyo, Tokyo, 113-0032 Japan

Agricultural and Veterinary Laboratories, Meiji Seika Kaisha, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, 222-8567 Japan

Division of Plant Sciences, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8602 Japan


Sung-Hyun Kim;Tetsuo Oikawa;Junko Kyozuka;Hann Ling Wong;Kenji Umemura;Mitsuko Kishi-Kaboshi;Akira Takahashi;Yoji Kawano;Tsutomu Kawasaki;Ko Shimamoto

The bHLH Rac Immunity1 (RAI1) Is Activated by OsRac1 via OsMAPK3 and OsMAPK6 in Rice Immunity
 Plant and Cell Physiology, 2012, 53(4): 740-754



Proposed model of the OsRac1 signaling pathway. In this model, the rice chitin receptor OsCERK1, which is present at the plasma membrane with the OsRac1 complex (Chen et al. 2010), is activated by exposure to PAMPs such as chitin. This is rapidly followed by the activation of OsRac1 (A. Akamatsu et al. unpublished data).The active form of OsRac1 interacts with OsMAPK3 and OsMAPK6 via the activation of OsMKK4 (Figs. 5, 6) (Lieberherr et al. 2005). The activated forms of OsMAPK3 and OsMAPK6 interact with RAI1 in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. In the nucleus, the phosphorylated (or unphosphorylated) form of RAI1 functions as a transcription factor to regulate the expression of downstream genes such as PAL1 and OsWRKY19.

Structured Information