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AP59 is a member of stress-inducible AP2 genes in rice[1].

Annotated Information


  • Transcription factors with an APETELA2 (AP2) domain have been implicated in various cellular processes involved in plant development and stress responses. Of the 139 AP2 genes predicted in rice, Oh et al. identified 42 genes in study that are induced by one or more stress conditions, including drought, high salinity, low temperature, and abscisic acid. Phylogenic analysis of these 42 stress-inducible AP2 genes revealed the presence of six subgroups (I–VI) with distinct signature motifs. Two genes, AP37 and AP59, representing subgroups I and II, respectively[1].
  • Microarray experiments identified 10 and 38 genes that are up-regulated by AP37 and AP59, respectively, in addition to 37 genes that are commonly induced by both factors[1].

GO assignment(s): GO:0003700,GO:0005634


  • Transcript levels of AP37 and AP59 were clearly enhanced at various levels in different transgenic lines as compared with those in the nontransgenic (NT) controls.
  • 4-week-old transgenic plants and NT controls were exposed to drought stress. The NT plants started to show visual symptoms of drought-induced damage, such as leaf rolling and wilting with a concomitant loss of chlorophylls, at an earlier stage than the OsCc1:AP37 and OsCc1:AP59 plants. The transgenic plants also recovered faster than the NT plants upon rewatering.
  • Levels of transgene expression in the OsCc1:AP59-2 line were also lower than those of others, while its phenotype was comparable to those of the other lines. Thus, the difference in transgenic phenotype does not always reflect different levels of mRNA[1].


  • The expression of both AP37 and AP59 was found to be induced after 2 h of exposure to high-salinity and drought stress. AP37 differs from AP59 in its response to low temperature and ABA. The expression of the former responded rapidly to low temperature and was induced by ABA, whereas the latter responded slowly to low temperature and was not induced by ABA. This is somewhat inconsistent with the microarray results, which indicated that AP37 is not induced by ABA. This discrepancy may be due to variation in the stress treatments, which showed that AP37 and AP59 are stress-inducible AP2 genes that are closely related yet different in their expression profiles[1].
  • Overexpression of AP37 and AP59 in transgenic rice increases the tolerance of these plants to drought and high-salinity stress conditions during the vegetative stage but that an increased tolerance to low temperature occurs only in plants overexpressing AP37[1].
  • In the OsCc1:AP59 plants under the same field conditions, however, total grain weight was reduced by 23% to 43% compared with the NT controls, which appears to be due to decreases in the number of spikelets[1].


AP59 is member of stress-inducible AP2 genes, it belongs to subgroup II[1].

Knowledge Extension

  • The members of APETALA2 (AP2) share a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as AP2[2]. AP2 factors appear to be widespread in plants, with the genomes of rice and Arabidopsis predicted to contain 139 and 122 AP2 genes, respectively[3].
  • It is conceivable that the differential inactivation of one of the two AP2 DNA binding domains is responsible for the differential effects of the ap2-7 mutation on Af2 activity. It will be interesting to determine whether these effects involve a direct interaction of AP2 protein with AG regulatory sequences[2]. The AP2/ERF superfamily is defined by the AP2/ERF domain, which consists of about 60 to 70 amino acids and is involved in DNA binding[3].

Labs working on this gene

  • School of Biotechnology and Environmental Engineering, Myongji University, Yongin 449–728, Korea


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Oh S J, Kim Y S, Kwon C W, et al. Overexpression of the transcription factor AP37 in rice improves grain yield under drought conditions[J]. Plant Physiology, 2009, 150(3): 1368-1379.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Weigel D. The APETALA2 domain is related to a novel type of DNA binding domain[J]. The Plant Cell, 1995, 7(4): 388.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Nakano T, Suzuki K, Fujimura T, et al. Genome-wide analysis of the ERF gene family in Arabidopsis and rice[J]. Plant physiology, 2006, 140(2): 411-432.

Structured Information