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The rice Os01g0869900 was reported as SAPK4 in 2008 [1] by researchers from Austria.

Annotated Information

Gene Symbol

  • Os01g0869900 <=> OsSAPK4,SAPK4


  • SNF1 regulate many cellular responses to environmental and nutritional stresses[1].
  • Key metabolic enzymes in plants, such as HMG-CoA reductase and sucrose phosphate synthase are regulated by SnRK phosphorylation:Sucrose synthase is the key enzyme in carbon metabolism which is controlled by SnRK1 protein kinases.SnRK1 can directly phosphorylate HMG-CoA reductase and sucrose phosphate synthase resulting in loss of activity[2].
  • SnRK1 kinase plays an important role in carbon-nitrogen interactions.SnRK1 can regulate the activity of those important physiological effects of substrate, which gives us a new way of thinking about the co-regulation of sugar, nitrogen compounds and the variety of secondary metabolites[3][4].
  • SnRKs also play a role in controlling the expression of sucrose synthase genes. Antisense expression of SnRK1 made SnRK1 activity decrease, coupling with the decrease of sucrose synthase activity[5].
  • SnRK1 could also regulate the expression of other genes, which can encode carbohydrate metabolism enzymes.It has been proposed that SnRKs regulate global carbon assimilation.and may also have a wider role in hormonal and stress signalling.such as in abscisic acid (ABA) and hyperosmotic stress signaling[6].
  • Antisense gene expressions in different plant indicate that SnRK1 has very important roles in plant growth and development processes[7].

GO assignment(s):GO:0004674,GO:0009651


  • The SnRK is a class of Ser/Thr protein kinase, which widely exists in plant and involves in a variety of signaling pathways.In plants, SnRKs were grouped into three subfamilies: SnRK1, SnRK2, and SnRK3[2].
  • SnRK1 subfamily: The SnRK1 was discovered initially in the rye.According to the similarity of amino acid sequences, SnRK1 is divided into SnRK1a and SnRK1b. SnRK1a expressed throughout the developmental period of the plant. But expression of SnRK1b in seeds is very high quality, and other parts of the plant are relatively low.
  • SnRK2 subfamily: SnRK2 sub-family is unique in plantsAccording to the similarity of amino acid sequence, SnRK2 is divided into SnRK2a and SnRK2b.SnRK2 protein contains a relatively short C-terminal, characterized of the C-terminal acidic with a short "patch."
  • SnRK3 subfamily: SnRK3 is a rare protein kinase in plant,called calcineurin B-like calcium sensor-interacting protein kinases.


  • SnRK2 protein kinase family has evolved specifically for hyperosmotic stress signaling and that individual members have acquired distinct regulatory properties, including ABA responsiveness by modifying the C-terminal domain[8].  Evidence that abscisic acid promotes degradation of SNF1-related protein kinase (SnRK) 1 and activation of a putative calcium-dependent SnRK2[9].
  • SnRK have a very important role in plant stress resistance,Under nutritional deficiency, the growth conditions of transgenic plant were better than the control group in Arabidopsis[10].
  • A novel protein phosphatase designated AtPTPKIS1 containing a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) catalytic domain and a kinase interaction sequence (KIS) domain interact with plant SNF1-related kinases as regulators of metabolic and stress responses[11].
  • Plants respond to extracellularly perceived abiotic stresses such as low temperature, drought, and salinity by activation of complex intracellular signaling cascades that regulate acclimatory biochemical and physiological changes. Protein kinases are major signal transduction factors that have a central role in mediating acclimation to environmental changes In this study, we characterized the function of the sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase2 (SnRK2) SAPK4 in the salt stress response of rice[12].
Figure 1. Regulation of SnRK1 during ABA treatment.

Labs working on this gene

  • Department of Biological Sciences, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK
  • Departament de Genetica Molecular, CID-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, E-08034, Barcelona, Spain.
  • Plant Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Botany,Bethune College
  • Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology,Presidency University
  • Bioscience and Biotechnology Center, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
  • Life Science Research Center, Mie University, 1515 Kamihama-cho, Tsu 514-8507, Japan
  • Key Laboratory of Protected Horticulture, Ministry of Education, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, Liaoning,110866, China
  • Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing,100081, China
  • Department of Physiology and Biochemistry of Plants, Faculty of Biology, University of Bielefeld, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany
  • Mendel Institute of Molecular Plant Biology, A-1030 Vienna, Austria
  • The National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China

gene family

Figure 2. Plant SnRK gene family phylogenetic analysis


  • The AMPK/SNF1/SnRK1 protein kinase functions as heterotrimeric complexes require α-,β-subunit and γ-subunits.For example SNF1 contains a catalytic subunit (Snf1), three β-subunits (Sip1, Sip2 and Gal83) and a γ-subunit (Snf4).[2]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Halford, N.G., Bouly, J.-P. and Thomas, M. 2000.SNF-1 related protein kinases (SnRKs) ± regulators at the heart of the control of carbon metabolism and partitioning. In: Plant Protein Kinases (Kreis, M. and Walker, J.C., eds). London: Academic Press, pp. 405±434.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Xue-Fei, D., C. Na, W. Li, Z. Xiao-Cui, Q. Bo, L. Tian-Lai and Z. Guo-Liang, 2012. The SnRK protein kinase family and the function of SnRK1 protein kinase. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 14: 575–5794.
  3. Halford, N.G., S. Hey, D. Jhurreea and S. Laurie, 2004. Highly conserved protein kinases involved in the regulation of carbon and amino acid metabolism. J. Exp. Bot., 394: 35–42.
  4. Li, G.J., F. Peng and L. Zhang, 2010. Cloning and characterization of a SnRK1- encoding gene from Malus hupehensis Rehd and heterologous expression in tomato. Mol. Biol. Rep., 37: 947–954.
  5. Halford, N.G. and J.R. Dickinson, 2001. Sugar sensing and cell cycle control: evidence of cross-talk between two ancient signaling pathways. Plant Cell Cycle Interfaces, 35: 87–107.
  6. Farra s, R., Ferrando, A., Ja sik, J., Kleinow, T.,OÈ kresz, L., Tiburcio,A., Salchert, K., Pozo, C.D., Schell, J. and Koncz, C. 2001. SKP1±SnRK protein kinase interactions mediate proteasomal binding of a plant SCF ubiquitin ligase. EMBO J. 20, 2742±2756.
  7. Halford, N.G., S. Hey, D. Jhurreea and S. Laurie, 2003. Metabolic signalling and carbon partitioning, role for Snf1-related (SnRK1) protein kinase.J. Exp. Bot, 54: 467–475.
  8. Yuhko Kobayashi;Shuhei Yamamoto;Hideyuki Minami;Yasuaki Kagaya;Tsukaho Hattori,2004.Differential Activation of the Rice Sucrose Nonfermenting1–Related Protein Kinase2 Family by Hyperosmotic Stress and Abscisic Acid .The Plant Cell, 16: 1163-1177.
  9. Patricia Coello, Emi HiranoEvidence,2012.that abscisic acid promotes degradation of SNF1-related protein kinase (SnRK) 1 in wheat and activation of a putative calcium-dependent SnRK2.Journal of Experimental Botany,63(2);913–924.
  10. Shin, R., A.Y. Burch, K.A. Huppert, S.B. Tiwari, A.S. Murphy, T.J.Guilfoyle and D.P. Schachtman, 2007. The Arabidopsis transcriptionfactor MYB77 modulates auxin signal transduction. Plant Cell, 19:2440–2453.
  11. Anthony P. Fordham-Skelton, Paul Chilley,2002.A novel higher plant protein tyrosine phosphatase interacts with SNF1-related protein kinases via a KIS (kinase interaction sequence) domain.The Plant Journal,29:705±715.
  12. Calliste J Diédhiou, Olga V Popova,2008.The SNF1-type serine-threonine protein kinase SAPK4 regulates stress-responsive gene expression in rice.BMC Plant Biology,8;49

Structured Information