Please input one-sentence summary here. This rice blast resistance genes was found by two Japanese scholars Imbe and Matsumoto in 1985, they called this gene Pi-sh,this gene has the moderate resistance to the blast fungus strain Kyu77-07A in rice variety Shin-2.this gene has been characterized by using the method of classical genetic.And this gene is linking to pi-t.
The genes are accounting for the moderate resistance of the rice variety Shin 2 and some other varieties to the blast fungus strain Kyu 77-07A. Aichi Asahi (Pi-a) and carried out in the present study. Yashiro-mochi (Pi-ta), were found to be susceptible to the strain, while Ishikari Shirol*.e (Pi-i), Kanto 51 (Pi-k), Tsuyuake (Pi-k'!b), Fukunishiki (Pi-z) and Toride I (Pi-zt) were resistant, and Shin 2 (Pi-ks) and Pi N0.4 (Pi-ta2) moderately resistant. Therefore, Kyu 77-07A was classified as one of the strains belonging to race 102. Howver, the variety Reiho with the resistance gene Pi-ta2 was susceptible to this strain. Based on the knovn facts mentioned above, the objectives 0L the present study were' to determinA- whether Pi-ks is the gene responsible for the moderate resistance of Shin 2' to Kyu 77-07A along with the reason for the different reactions to Kyu 77-07A betweerL Pi N0.4 and Reiho which both have the same resistance gene Pi-ta2. For the gene analysis, the F2 or F3 plants of the crosses were inoculated with Kyu 77-07A and three other fungus strains using the spraying rnethod when the plants were at the four- to five-1eaf stage. Two varieties, Mineyutaka. and Saikai 155 belonging to the Shin 2 type varieties, were used as the representative parents of the varieties susceptible to Kyu 77-07A for the crosses( Y. Koide,2010).
Pik-h, an allele of Pik, confers resistance against the rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Its positional cloning has shown that it comprises a pair of NBS-LRR genes, Pikh-1 and Pikh-2. While Pikh-1 appears to be constitutively transcribed, the transcript abundance of Pikh-2 responds to pathogen challenge. The Pikh-1 CC (coiled coil) domain interacts directly with both AvrPik-h and Pikh-2. Transient expression assays demonstrated that Pikh-2 mediates the initiation of the host defence response. Nucleocytoplasmic partitioning of both Pikh-1 and Pikh-2 is required for their functionalities. In a proposed mechanistic model of Pik-h resistance, it is suggested that Pikh-1 acts as an adaptor between AvrPik-h and Pikh-2, while Pikh-2 transduces the signal to trigger Pik-h-specific resistance.
To identify novel factors required for R gene-mediated resistance in rice, we used rice insertional mutant lines, induced by the endogenous retrotransposon Tos17, in a forward screen involving the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. We inoculated 41,119 mutant lines with the fungus using a high throughput procedure, and identified 86 mutant lines with diminished resistance. A genome analysis revealed that 72 of the 86 lines contained mutations in a gene encoding a nucleotide binding site (NB) and leucine rich repeat (LRR) domain-containing (NLR) protein. A genetic complementation analysis and a pathogenesis assay demonstrated that this NLR gene encodes Pish, which confers resistance against races of M. oryzae containing avrPish. The other 14 lines have intact copies of the Pish gene, suggesting that they may contain mutations in the signaling components downstream of Pish. The genome analysis indicated that Pish and its neighboring three NLR genes are high similar to one another and are tandemly located. An in silico analysis of a Tos17 flanking sequence database revealed that this region is a "hot spot" for insertion. Intriguingly, the insertion sites are not distributed evenly among these four NLR genes, despite their similarity at the sequence and expression levels. In this work we isolated the R gene Pish, and identified several other mutants involved in the signal transduction required for Pish-mediated resistance. These results indicate that our genetic approach is efficient and useful for unveiling novel aspects of defense signaling in rice. Furthermore, our data provide experimental evidence that R gene clusters have the potential to be highly preferred targets for transposable element insertions in plant genomes. Based on this finding, a possible mechanism underlying the high variability of R genes is discussed. Primer pairs utilized in this work(Akira Takahashi,2010).
A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between phenotype of blast resistance and resistance gene analog polymorphism of rice, and search molecule hereditary basis of broad spectrum and durable resistance. 【Method】 Comparison of clustering analysis was investigated using spectrum of resistance to blast and polymorphism of resistance gene analog (RGA) in 25 varieties for blast resistance identification and 20 varieties lines). 【Result】 The resistance spectrum clustering analysis showed that the 45 varieties (lines) could be divided into group A and group B with the genetic similarity coefficient of 0.450. Group A and group B could be divided into subclassⅰ, subclass , ⅱ subclass , ⅲ subclass ⅳ, respectively, with 0.618 genetic similarity coefficient. The RGA-PCR clustering analysis showed that proposed the 45 varieties (lines) could be divided into group Ⅰ and group Ⅱ which clearly inclined the Indica-japonica differentiation with 0.620 genetic similarity coefficient. Group Ⅰ could be divided into six subclasses and group Ⅱ could be divided into seven subclasses with 0.783 genetic similarity coefficient. The resistance spectrum clustering analysis showed that some varieties with similar resistance spectrum could finely fall into the same group, while the RGA-PCR clustering analysis showed that some varieties with the similar genetic background could fall into the same group. For some varieties with low resistance frequency or high resistance frequency, there was a better corresponding relationship between the resistance spectrum clustering and the RGA-PCR clustering. General comparison of clustering analysis showed that here was no parallelism relationship between group and group in two different types of the clustering. 【Conclusion】 It could more accurately reflect their enetic background to test resistance to single strain and analysis on RGA polymorphism for resistance parents, and avoid applying the same source of resistance gain and again, and enrich rice resistance germplasm, and breed durable resistance varieties(Tokio IMBE,1985).
Plants have evolved elaborate defense mechanisms to protect themselves from many kinds of pathogens, including fungi, bacteria, viruses, and insects. Defense responses governed by the gene-for-gene hypothesis are triggered in plants when the product of a plant resistance (R) gene directly or indirectly recognizes a specific pathogen effector molecule, which is often the product of a pathogen avirulence (avr) gene . The absence or inactivation of either member of this gene pair results in susceptibility of the host to the pathogen. To date more than 40 R genes have been isolated from several plant species, and most of them exhibit highly conserved structures, despite differences between the types of pathogens that are recognized. Pathogen recognition by any R protein initiates a common set of defense responses, including the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), expression of pathogen-related (PR) genes, and localized programmed cell death at the site of pathogen challenge, which is known as the hypersensitive response (HR) . This suggests that common downstream components may be shared by R proteins within and among plant species.
The most prevalent class of plant R proteins contains a nucleotide binding site (NBS) and a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) region, and are thus called NBS-and-LRR containing (NBS-LRR) proteins. The NBS domain is a functional ATPase and probably regulates the activity of the R proteins . The LRR domain is required for specific recognition of the pathogen containing corresponding avirulence gene, and changing even a single amino acid in this region alters its recognition specificity, resulting in disease . In addition, there are reports that the N-terminal region of the Toll protein and interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain and the putative coiled-coil (CC) domain of some NBS-LRR proteins are involved in specific pathogen recognition. Genome analyses have revealed that a large number of NBS-LRR genes exist in plant genomes. The Arabidopsis and rice genomes contain up to 150 and 600 NBS-LRR genes, respectively, and many of them are tightly clustered.
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Labs working on this gene
1.Division of Genome and Biodiversity Research, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Ibaraki, 305-8602，Japan.
2.International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), DAPO Box 7777, Metro Manila, Philippines;
3.Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), 1-1, Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686, Japan;
4.Indonesian Center for Rice Research (ICRR), JL. Raya Muara No. 25A Ciapus Bogor, Subang, West Java, Indonesia;
5.Agricultural Genetics Institute,Conhue, Tuliem, Hanoi, Vietnam;
6.Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Burundi, BP 2940 Bujumbura, Burundi;
7.National Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China
8.Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Microbe Signals and Crop Disease Control, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China
9.National Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, College of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China
1. Y. Koide;A. Kawasaki;M. J. Telebanco-Yanoria;A. Hairmansis;N. T. M. Nguyet;J. Bigirimana;D. Fujita;N. Kobayashi;Y. Fukuta
Development of pyramided lines with two resistance genes, Pish and Pib, for blast disease (Magnaporthe oryzae B. Couch) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) Plant Breeding, 2010, 129(6): 670-675
2. Akira Takahashi;Nagao Hayashi;Akio Miyao;Hirohiko Hirochika
Unique features of the rice blast resistance Pish locus revealed by large scale retrotransposon-tagging BMC Plant Biology, 2010, 10: 175
3. Tokio IMBE;Shohei MATSUMOTO
Inheritance of Resrstance of Rice Vanetles to the Blast Fungus Strains Virulent to the Variety "Reiho" Japanese Journal of Breeding, 1985, 35(0): 332-339.
4.鄂志国, 张丽靖, 焦桂爱, 等.
稻瘟病抗性基因的鉴定及利用进展[J]. 中国水稻科学, 2008, 22(5): 533-540.
5.杨勤忠, 林菲, 冯淑杰, 等.
水稻稻瘟病抗性基因的分子定位及克隆研究进展[J]. 中国农业科学, 2009, 42(5): 1601-1615.
6.任鄄胜, 肖培村, 陈勇, 等.
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7.Chun Zhai，Yu Zhang，Nan Yao.etc
Function and Interaction of the Coupled Genes Responsible for Pik-h Encoded Rice Blast Resistance.PLOS ONE，2014,9
8.Jones JD, Dangl JL.
The plant immune system. Nature. 2006;444:323–329. doi: 10.1038/nature05286
9.Greenberg JT, Yao N.
The role and regulation of programmed cell death in plant-pathogen interactions. Cell Microbiol. 2004;6:201–211. doi: 10.1111/j.1462- 5822.2004.00361.x.
10.van Ooijen G, Mayr G, Kasiem MM, Albrecht M, Cornelissen BJ, Takken FL.
Structure-function analysis of the NB-ARC domain of plant disease resistance proteins. J Exp Bot. 2008;59:1383–1397. doi: 10.1093/jxb/ern045.
11.Bryan GT, Wu KS, Farrall L, Jia Y, Hershey HP, McAdams SA, Faulk KN, Donaldson GK, Tarchini R, Valent B.
A single amino acid difference distinguishes resistant and susceptible alleles of the rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta. Plant Cell. 2000;12:2033–2046. doi: 10.1105/tpc.12.11.2033.