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The rice OsMADS3(Os01g0201700) is a member of MADS-box transcription factors in rice, it belongs to class C genes of the ABC model of flower development in plants[1][2].

Annotated Information


Figure 1. Mutant VS. WT(from reference) [1].
(A) Plant after bolting.(B) Panicle at the heading stage.(C) to (F) Flowers at stage 11 ([C] and [E]) and stage 12 ([D] and [F]) .(G) and (H) Pollen grains at stage 12 stained by I2-KI.(I) and (J) Transverse sections of fresh anthers prepared from flowers like those in (D) and (F) without the staining treatment. MP, mature pollen; Msp, microspore; T, tapetum; WT, wild type. Bars = 5 mm in (C) to (F), 50 mm in (G) and (H), and 10 mm in (I) and (J).
Figure 2. Analyses of the MT-1-4b-amiRNA Lines. [1].
Figure 3. Molecular Identification of Rice MADS3. [1]
Figure 4. Rice MADS3 Expression Pattern Analysis. [1]
Figure 5. Phylogenetic Analysis of MADS Domain Proteins in the AG Subfamily. [2]

OsMADS3(Os01g0201700)plays key roles in both stamen identity specification and late anther development ,and Loss-of-function mutants of OsMADS3 result severe defects in stamen identity and lodicule number[1][2].OsMADS3 is highly expressed in the tapetum and microspores during late anther development and is a key transcriptional regulator that functions in rice male reproductive development, at least in part, by modulating ROS levels through MT-1-4b[1].

  • OsMADS3 plays a synergistic role with OsMADS13 in both ovule development and floral meristem termination[3].
  • OsMADS3 represses the expression of the putative A-class gene DEP (OsMADS15)[3].
  • OsMADS3 and OsMADS58 have been subfunctionalized such that they play more predominant roles in distinct whorls[2].
  • The expression of OsMADS3 and OsMADS58can be activated by OsMADS6 to regulates the stamen, carpel, and meristem identities at early stages and specifies carpel/ovule development[[4].


OsMADS3 alleles:mads3-1,mads3-2,mads3-3,mads3-4.

  • mads3-1 is a weak allele carrying an insertion in the C-terminal region of the gene and showing no defective floral organs[2].
  • mads3-2 is an intermediate allele with a mutation at the C terminus of the K-domain and reduced expression of the gene, which resulted in mild transformation of stamens into lodicules[2].
  • mads3-3 is a strong allele in the Dongjin (a japonica cultivar) background. It contains a T-DNA insertion in the second intron of the gene, which leads to no detectable OsMADS3 transcript and homeotic transformation of nearly all stamens in whorl 3 into lodicule-like organs [2].
  • mads3-4, which results in a mutation in the middle region of the K-domain of OsMADS3, seems to be another intermediate mutant with reduced expression of OsMADS3[1].


the expression of OsMADS3is detectable in stamen primordia[2], when the lemma and palea primordia initiate, but disappears soon after the appearance of the stamen primordia. However, mads3-4 seems to show strong defects in late anther development (Figures 1C to 1F). RT-PCR detected no obvious expression of OsMADS3 in vegetative organs, nonreproductive floral organs (i.e., glumes, lemma, and palea) (Figure 5A). By contrast, an increase in OsMADS3 expression was detected in anthers starting from stage 9, when young microspores form. The expression of OsMADS3 peaked at stage 11, when the bicellular pollen forms, and decreased at stage 12 (Figure 5A). In addition, the OsMADS3transcript was weakly detected in the pistil at the heading stage (Figure 5A). Consistent with the RT-PCR data, transgenic rice plants expressing the GUS gene driven by the OsMADS3 promoter (3.1 kb) exhibited GUS activity from stage 9 to 12 during anther development (Figure 5B). GUS activity was also observed in the stigma of the pistil (Figure 5C). Furthermore, transverse anther sections showed GUS expression[1].


OsMADS3 is most closely related to OsMADS58 among the rice MADS box genes. OsMADS3 and OsMADS58 share 96 and 67% sequence identity in the MADS domain and across the whole protein, respectively.OSMADS3 and OSMADS58 share similar genomic organization: they contain 10 exons and 9 introns at the same positions and have a large intron after the second exon, which partly contains the MADS boy[2].

Knowledge Extension

  • OsMADS29 1.5 Knowledge Extension
  • the ABC model can also partially explain how stamen determination is specified in the monocot plant rice [2]. For example, a rice B-class gene, SUPERWOMEN1 (SPW1 or MADS16), which is orthologous to the Arabidopsis APETALA3 gene, has been shown to be crucial for stamen specification . spw1 mutants show homeotic conversions of stamens to carpels and lodicules to palea/lemma-like structures. In Arabidopsis, the C-class gene AGAMOUS (AG) acts to specify stamen and carpel identities and floral meristem determinacy . Studies in rice identified two C-class MADS box genes, MADS3 and MADS58, that may have distinct functions in specifying stamen identity, with MADS3 playing a more important role [2].
  • Other MADS box genes, such as SPOROCYTELESS/NOZZLE (SPL/NZZ) [5][6].andAG from Arabidopsis and MADS2 from maize [6], have been implicated in regulating anther development. SPL/NZZ regulates the formation of anther walls and pollen mother cells, as the primary sporogenous cells cannot form pollen mother cells in spl anthers, thereby blocking early cell differentiation [5].AGhas been shown to activate the expression of SPL/NZZ, suggesting that this gene is necessary for early stamen development [7]. During later developmental stages, AG continues its expression in the anther and regulates anther dehiscence by directly regulating the expression of the gene that encodes a jasmonic acid (JA) synthetic enzyme, DEFECTIVE IN ANTHER DEHISCENCE1 [7]. Maize MADS2 is required for anther dehiscence and pollen maturation, and knockdown of MADS2 resulted in abortion of anthers and defective pollen development[7]..

Labs working on this gene

  • School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
  • Bio-X Research Center, Key Laboratory of Genetics and Development and Neuropsychiatric Diseases, Ministry of Education,Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
  • Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824
  • Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan
  • Division of Molecular and Life Sciences, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784, Republic of Korea
  • National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Kannondai, Tsukuba 305-0856, Japan
  • Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Hu L, Liang W, Yin C, et al. Rice MADS3 regulates ROS homeostasis during late anther development[J]. The Plant Cell Online, 2011, 23(2): 515-533.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 Yamaguchi T, Lee D Y, Miyao A, et al. Functional diversification of the two C-class MADS box genes OSMADS3 and OSMADS58 in Oryza sativa[J]. The Plant Cell Online, 2006, 18(1): 15-28.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Li, H.F., Liang, W.Q., Yin, C.S., Zhu, L., and Zhang, D.B. (2011).Genetic interaction of OsMADS3, DROOPING LEAF, and OsMADS13 in specifying rice floral organ identities and meristem determinacy.Plant Physiol. 156: 263–274.
  4. Moon, Y.H., Kang, H.G., Jung, J.Y., Jeon, J.S., Sung, S.K., and An, G. (1999). Determination of the motif responsible for interaction between the rice APETALA1/AGAMOUS-LIKE9 family proteins using a yeast two-hybrid system. Plant Physiol. 120: 1193–1204
  5. Yang, Y., Fanning, L., and Jack, T. (2003). The K domain mediates heterodimerization of the Arabidopsis floral organ identity proteins, APETALA3 and PISTILLATA. Plant J. 33: 47–59.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Schiefthaler, U., Balasubramanian, S., Sieber, P., Chevalier, D.,Wisman, E., and Schneitz, K. (1999). Molecular analysis of NOZZLE,a gene involved in pattern formation and early sporogenesis duringsex organ development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.USA 96: 11664–11669.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Itoh, J., Nonomura, K., Ikeda, K., Yamaki, S., Inukai, Y., Yamagishi, H., Kitano, H., and Nagato, Y. (2005). Rice plant development: From zygote to spikelet. Plant Cell Physiol. 46: 23–47.